miércoles, 8 de septiembre de 2010

Personality, Perception and Attribution + Attitudes and Values

Beyond Pygmalion effect: the role of managerial perception.

Personality, perception and attribution.

Understanding relation within and between the organization is esencial to know that factors such perception, personality and attribution influences the behavior of individuals and therefore the organization.
“Perception is the process of attaining awareness or understanding of sensory information.”(1) People’s perception is affected by internal factors such as personal experiences, personality and external factors such as stimuli from environment and context in which they operate.

people are apt to perceive in-group members individually and other members as a group
“Attribution theory”. Heider suggested that explanations of behaviour fall into two categories. One is internal attribution and the other is external attribution. Internal attribution is associated with personal factors such as personality, ability and motivation. In contrast, external attribution is related to environment factors such as organisational rules, luck and natural environment. So the attribution is related to beliefs,fellings and those elements affect they way of the behavior.

As mencioned before the perception and the attribution are related to personality , so is important to understand well this concept to have a better panorama how those factors could affect the organizational behavior.

“Personality can be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions, motivations, and behaviors in various situations “ (2). Factors such heredity and the environment could determined the personality, but a particular aspect of personality is that the behavior of a person is similar in different situations.
So in a company is fundamental to take in mind those aspects because those are elements that determine the individual behavior, that why we heard constantly that is important to motívate the workers because is easier to generat e or obtain better results.

Others aspects that evaluate or affect indirect the personality are the values. values are beliefs about preferable conduct, so your act could be determine by what you thing is right or not. But in an organization has a general values that are determined by norms that guide you how you must act inside the organization to have a better environment and better relationship with your partner.

As mencioned before values determined or has a lot of influence in the personal behavior that ´s why is important to respect the values of the other people and understand them, because in a certain way understanding them you could interpretate their personality, attitudes and the reason why a person act in a specific way.

Please explain, using your own words, the concept of Pygmalion Effect. What are the potential implications, uses, or challenges that this effect may pose for organizations engaging into international operations that require the understanding of diverse cultural contexts? Can you use this concept to explain the relationship between national and organizational cultures?

Pygmalion effect consist to provide a basis for better understanding the behaviour of actors involved. The basis of the Pygmalion Effect is the confidence that others have about us can give us the strength to achieve difficult goals in different situations.
In an organization our behaviors are influenced by supervisors see us and by us have expectations about our environment: family, friends, colleagues and bosses at the companies. Self-confidence, even if infected by a third party can give us sufficient strength to achieve what we hope to become what they believe and we believe we can be.
This phenomenon is easy to identify in an organization’s has a great impact on workers, the main effect is like the supervisor conveys to employees the message, the tone that says they can change the message and the goals will discover the enormous differences that exist to provide the same order in two different ways.
The power of expectations cannot be overestimated. These are the fundamental principles you can apply to performance expectations and potential performance improvement at work. Can we imagine how performance will improve if your supervisors actually believe that every employee has the ability to make a positive contribution at work, either consciously or unconsciously, will positively affect employee performance.
In today’s international environment, organizations are more competitive, different cultures meet making cultural differences such as races, religions and languages so this theory also helps to accommodate to different scenarios and understanding the Pygmalion Effect can make a difference in the work place.
In conclusion, it should remain committed to improving our treatment to all employees, without exception and without prejudice. We should show fair attitudes towards all. Trust us that they perceive will generate significant results in its action. Let us show faith in the ability of people to change them and make them better.


•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perception.( 1)
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Personality_psychology (2)
•Takao Inamori, Farhad Analoui, "Beyond Pygmalion effect: the role of managerial perception", Journal of Management Development, Vol. 29 Iss: 4, pp.306 – 321
•Gregorio Martín-de-Castro, José Emilio Navas-López, Pedro López-Sáez, Elsa Alama-Salazar, (2006) "Organizational capital as competitive advantage of the firm", Journal of Intellectual Capital, Vol. 7 Iss: 3, pp.324

martes, 7 de septiembre de 2010

Japanese and Korean Management Style


Japanese and Korean Managament Style

Interaction between individuals, organizartions have many similarities but also have differences, that´s why management slyte could be a very usefull tool that help people to get a better environment, relation and communication between people. Exist different types of management style that “can be employed dependent on the culture of the business, the nature of the task, the nature of the workforce and the personality and skills of the leaders”(1)
In this case we are going to analyze the japan and the korean management style to understand better the convergence and diferentiation terms.
Japanese style consider that in every business is very important the approach to the cultural context , also is essencial stablish good relation with the suppliers, because they know a lot about the market and also have a very useful information, so the japan people see the supplier as a partner, every company think that is neccesary to cooperate and coordinate with them,if you want to growth and take advantage to competitor, that why for japanese is very important to have a good relation with the suppliers.
A key factor in the japanese style is the Price that why in almost all the companies use economies of scale for get more pieces with lower cost and in this way could compete to other industries.
“Zaibatsu is a Japanese term referring to industrial and financial business conglomerates in the Empire of Japan, whose influence and size allowed for control over significant parts of the Japanese economy from the Meiji period until the end of World War II.” (2)
This group gain a position in the Japanese economy and could influenced in several factors such tax policy, finacial regulation because they are the owners of all the banks.so thats why they could control a good part of the economy.
In the other hand we are going to analyze the Korean style. this has many similarities with the japanese style but in this model the role of government is prominent because without active support from the government, no enterprise can survive and prosper, so the govermennt intervenes mainly in credit, foreign exchange rationing, and so on. As aresult for it, many firms grew faster and diversified better.
Like Japan, Korean also has a representative group called Chaebol ,both organism has many diferences for example the source of capital for Zaibatsu is organized around a bank, but Chaelod were prohibited owining a bank, that means tha t banks were nationalized.another diference is that the goverment favored Chaebol giving privilegies so they grew not because they were profitable but merely because they could borrow vast funds.
After the analyzing of those types of managament, and knowing that each country has differents set of cultural norms, we can said that is very difficult to apply a specific model in all the countries because exist Domestic pressure and international pressure, but is possible to converge some aspect to adapt better in a specific situation.
So Covengece means: “the approach toward a definite value, a definite point, a common view or opinion, or toward a fixed or equilibrium state” (3). That why we can implement strategies that could by applied in a international market despite that exist cultural, legal, political barriers.

What is isomorphism? Do you think organizations change management styles to adapt to the environment? Which environment is stronger: national environment or international environment?

Isomorphism comes from isos “equal” and morphe “shape”; it is a similarity of the processes or structure of one organization to those of another, being it the result of imitation or independent development under similar situations.
I think Organization do change management styles to adapt to adapt to the environment and in fact they should do it, because as we can notice, now we are living in a high developed and globalized world where it is suffering continues changes which the organizations have to be aware of, otherwise it could have bad consequences not only in management processes but also in production, marketing, etc.
I think it depends in what is the organization about, what is it core business and where is it objective market, if it is a national company which supply only to its national market, it should focus and pay attention to national environment as it doesn’t get very affected by international environment as could be a company that is a multinational one that have to be aware and change with the international environment.

In the case of Korean and Japanese management styles, do you think they tend to converge or diverge? Are they likely to converge to each other or to other management styles (Western, Asian, etc).

I think those methodos amplied both terms, Converge and diverge. In the korean style initiallly they were aware that should use similar aspect from the japan style because in some way they have common values, cultural aspects, behavior and others, for that they though that could be a good idea applied the same strategies to be sucessfully, Because for both have the same priorities such: establish long them relationship, economical growth etc but in another point of view they recognized that they needed more the goverment intervention to survive and prosper so that means that they have differences so they must find others alternatives to achieve their goals.


•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Management_styles. (1)
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zaibatsu (2)
•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Convergence (3)

lunes, 6 de septiembre de 2010


Employees motivation theories developed at an international level.

Motivation is the activation or energization of goal-orientated behavior (1) , that´s why is really important in every company, because it influences or determine the work performance of employees, and each person needs differents stimuluos for achieve something or act in a certain manner.

Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs could be consider the most influenced theory related with motivation. This theory classifies people needs in 5 well-known categories: physiological needs, needs of security and safety, social needs (sense of belonging), needs of selfesteem and the needs of self-actualization.
Maslow mentions in this sense that "man is a perpetually wanting animal" and only an unsatisfied need can motivate the behaviour, the dominant need being the primary factor for behaviour motivation.

Another motivation theory is Frederick Herzberg's Two Factors Theory it is related about the sources of professional satisfaction and dissatisfaction.and in which it considers
that motivation and the increase of work performance can be only obtained through the action of the motivational factors, which directly reflect the content of the executed work by the employee on his position.

Theory X and Theory Y is the best known motivational theories, in which the employees is separated in two categories: x theory where the employees are indiferrent to the needs of the company that the belongs to, they dislike working and try to avoid it if they can, they are resistance to change so they must be forced, controlled in order to attain the company objectives.and the theory Y the employees like to make effort to achieve their goal and to obtain performance, because they are motivated by the content of theirs work.
The Alderfer's ERG theory has some similarities with Maslow Theory but the difference is that worker pursue multiple needs simultaneously.and the las theory is the McClelland's need which consist that people acquiered basically three needs, The achievement, power and affiliation need and those has it own motivator

Also exit three process theory : the expectancy theory, the goal setting theory and the equity theory.
The expectancy establishes a connection between the employees’ motivation and the
certitude of their expectancies.and the motivation is posible if the exist a clear relation between the work performance and the results.
The goal setting establish that the level of motivation and performance is higher when the individual has specific objectives established and when these objectives are accepted and are offered a performance feedback. Feedback is essential to take the employees motivated. And The equity theory states that people are high motivated when people perceived that they are treatedare in same way.

To conclude the development of human resources and the daily activity are very important factors for increasing employees’ satisfaction, and its neccesary to stimuluos and motívate the employess if you want to obtain better results.

1. What are the Hawthorne Studies? explain its importance for studying motivation at the workplace and its influence over diverse motivation theories. (include key findings and limitations) (max. 500 words)

Hawthorne Studies were conducted by Elton Mayo, this studies particulary examined the impact of work conditions in employee productivity, Firstable this experiment began by examinating the physical and environmental influences of the workplace and then analyzing the psychological aspects and also evaluating the impact on employee motivation as it applies to productivity. In others Word this effect wants to demostrated that Employees are more productive , when they know they are being observed and also highlights that employees needs to be stimulus to increase the productivity.
Relating this studies with Frederick Herzberg's Two Factors Theory we can interpretated that people are quite similar but in general view has more differences that similaries that why knowing or studying the human behavior we can discovered that each person needs to be motivated in different way to gain more form him/her and to get better results. And the increase of work performance can be only obtained through the action of the motivational factors
Comparing with Mc Clelland, demostrated that everybody use differents techniques of putting the component parts of the relay together and also research findings into achievement motivated people.
So with this experiment or studies manager understoond that they have to motivate their worker if you want to gain productivity, The workers needs to feel pleased that their ideas are being heard and feel that they are part of the company. And another thing that you must to take into account is a good communication and relation between supervisor and employee to create a positive attitude in the work environment. And know that exist several factores that could influence the productivity or job performance such social factors, informal organization, Work-group norms also the need for recognition, security and sense of belonging .

2. Based on the class activity about "Flight 001: Motivating Employees", please answer the following question: ¿Which motivation theory do you think has the most relevance for understanding the behavior of Griffin and fostering her motivation at work?

I think the McGregor's Theory has the most relevance for understanding the behavior of Griffin because she felt that she was Part of the company and she was appeciate so she feel motivated again and founded a place where she could make contribution and be challenged and also could help to the progress of the company increasing opportunities and helping it to achieve the purpose. So she will be commitment to the organization because she is satisfying with her job.

•http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Motivation (1)
•Viorel, Lefter, Manolescu Aurel, Marinas Cristian Virgil, and Puia Ramona Stefania. 2009. "EMPLOYEES MOTIVATION THEORIES DEVELOPED AT AN INTERNATIONAL LEVEL." Annals of the University of Oradea, Economic Science Series 18, no. 4: 324-328.

domingo, 5 de septiembre de 2010

Communication + Virtual Teams

Communication and virtual teams.

Communication is a process that allows people interact and transmit information.
So people needs to have skill to stablish a good comunication, that why is esencial to be a expressive speaker(openly expresse thoughs and feelings) Emphatic listener(wiiling to lisen.concerned abouth others without responsabilities) Persuasive Leaders(encourage others to achieve goals instead of giving orders) Sensitive to feelings and informative. overtime technology has progressed and has created new forms of and ideas about communication. Those advance mechamisim has reduced the face to face communication and has increase the virtual team, that represents groups of people that are geographically dispersed and needs the use of informations and communications technologies for accomplishing an organizational task. This method are becoming increasingly to reduce costs, improve quality, compete globally, improve customer service, and accelerate the product development cycle Others reason that promote the use of virtual team is the “business pull” that is being produced by the expansión of global operation, the necessity to penétrate to new markets and posibility to utilize the diverse human resource capabilities of people. And “technology push” is being produced by the advent of new electronic technologies in communications

Virtual team could has problems associated with the lack of direct person-to person contact and immediate managerial oversight, such an ineffective communication in the absence of nonverbal components of messages ,loss visión, lack of leisure time for team members , resistance to the unstructured nature of the team, Require developing skills of employees on special virtual teaming supporting applications. lack of opportunities for team members to build relationships and trust, as well as to address issues caused by heterogeneous membership in terms of location and culture.As we have mencionated virtual team has advantages and disadvantages but is posible that a benefit could create a negative effect so we can said that classification (advantages and disadvantages) is subjective, so to eliminate or decrease the adverse effects of teams is important to consider three aspects: (1) the team has to be a clearly bounded group of people with a shared collective responsibility for the outcome, (2) the team leader has to establish basic norms of conduct and make these explicit, and (3) the reward systems of the organization have to recognize collective performance of the team.

An effective and sucessful virtual teams requieres some factors like ; communication, trust, leadership, clear goals, and technology and if you want to design, plan, implement a virtual team you must consider t eam structure, strategic objectives, work characteristics, and situational constraints.

A prerequisite for virtual teams is building a firm foundation; thus, face-to-face relationship building is essential becasuse that iface to face nteraction develop trust and respect at the onset of a project for successful
interaction of team members. face-to-face meetings are held at three points in the life of a virtual team:
• At commencement: When face-to-face contact can create social relationships, build mutual trust, establish reciprocal commitment, and establish a shared set of business goals and objectives.
• At an intermediate stage: When workshops can influence relationships, resolve misunderstandings, and clarify task issues
• At winding up: When gatherings can finalize unresolved items, generate commitment to output, and celebrate

When we talk about virtual global teams we can determine two key challenges in leadiing that are isolation and confusión. And also exist diferents elements lead to successful virtual teams:
• human resource policies that recognize, support, and reward virtual team members and leaders;
• an adaptable “flat” organizational structure, rather than a hierarchical, control-oriented organization;
• an organizational culture that values communication, learning, teamwork, and the need for diversity;
• people who possess good verbal, listening, and writing skills; and
• a technologically advanced organization and people trained in using technologies.

To conclude , Most of the problems lies for the poor communication, that why In this environment, trust, shared understanding, and depth of relationships among team members serve as important antecedents for virtual collaboration and to have ann effective virtual team you must guarantee that the employees have well-developed self-discipline and a clear understanding of project management concepts from their other dayto- day work experiences.

Based on the article “If Intercontinental were a sound…what would it be?”*, Please discuss the implications (potential advantages, disadvantages, challenges, etc.) of using sounds to send strategic messages. You need to integrate the use of key concepts relating to the topic of communication to support your answer.

All forms of communication require a sender, menssage and a receiver,so in the process to comunicate something is possible that the sender or the receiver could translate the message in a wrong way. So when you want to use sounds to send strategic messages, people could interpretate in many differents ways, and also is possible that someone wants to transmit a specific detail a nobody understand the meaning, that means that the understanding of menssage is subjetive. Also using sounds to comunicate does not generate as much impact as if it would be using a more direct communication. Another limitation is that Music is not representational: it does not sharpen the perception of the external world

On the other hand it is possible that using this mechanism could reach more people, generate more effective respond and avoid some barriers that are in a face to face communication such race, religion, also can create an enriching and stimulating environment.

Aristotle explained 2500 years ago that music is mimetic or imitative. Imitative of what? the harmony of the spheres? the sounds in the world around us? human emotion? To a certain extent all of these are right. What remains the same, however, is the role that emotion plays in the significance of our responses to music.(1) that means that human have a better understanding of emotive responses to music.

So as we demostrated, using sounds to send staegic menssages has advantages and disavantages so i recommend when you want to use this type or mechanism to comunicate you need to know well what you want to transmit and if using this way you going to achieve the goals and be sucessful.

•Michael Spencer, "If InterContinental were a sound … what would it be?” Journal of Business Strategy, Vol. 31 Iss: 4, pp.39 - 46
•Kuruppuarachchi, Palitha R. 2009. "Virtual team concepts in projects: A case study." Project Management Journal 40, no. 2: 19-33.
•http://www.bu.edu/wcp/Papers/Aest/AestWort.htm (1)

sábado, 4 de septiembre de 2010

Organizational Behavior + National and organizational culture

Organizational Behavior and Opportunity.
International Management and culture

Organizational behavior is individual behavior and group dynamics in organizations, that are related with the pychosocial,interpersonal and behavioral dynamics. It is affected by differents variables such culture, the design of work communication, performance appraisal,organizational design and organizational structure.
Primary to understand organizational behavior is necessary the understanding of human behavior and the organizational context.
Human behavior is influenced by internal and external perpective, the internal considers factors inside the person such thoughts,feelings, past experience and needs. and the external is focus on external eyents, consequences of behavior and the environmental forces to which a person is subject. So the external perspective implies that person´s behavior is best understood by examining the surrounding external events and environmental forces. Also the sciences of psychology(workmotivation), sociology (knowledge about group and intergroup dynamics) engineering( understanding of the design of work) anthropology(understading organizational cultura),management ( overseeing activities and supervising people in organizations) and medicine( healing or treatment of diseases to enhance an individual,s health and well – being) contribute to understand human behavior in organizations.
The factors mencioned affect the human behavior but talking in a general way also exist diferents aspect that influence decisión making within organization like : organizational strategy, history,resources,policies, systems, organizational culture,competitors, suppliers,technology,national culture,religión etc.
In the other hand to understand organizational behavior is necessary to comprehend the organizational context, so organizations are open systems of interacting components which are people(human resources), tasks (missions,purpose,goals) technology (tools, knowledge used to transform the inputs into outputs) and structure(systems of communication,authority and workflow). These internal components also ineract with components in the organization´s task environment such suppliers,customers and federal regulators. So as organization is a open system is neccesary that in every decisión you going to take is important to have in mind the culture and know that diferents social groups have different cultures and those groups may respond to similar situations in differents ways and also you need to have clear that culure include systems of values,beliefs that influence in people how they should behave and do behave.
When we talk about organization we can take two point of view the formal and the informal way, the formal organization is the oficial,legitímate,and most visible part that enables people to think of organizations in logical and rational ways, and the informal elements are beliefs,percepction,values,feelings,group norms that make a diference in people´s behavior and performance.
Change is often experienced as a threat that a leads to a reliance on well- learned and dominat forms of behavior, those changes can creates opportunities and risk, but a good way to respond positively in times of change is that you need to have positive attitude, ask questions, listen ti answers and be committed to sucess. Also another elements that have effect on people and their behavior in work is the corporate and global competition becoming more customers focused and managers developing challenges related to change in organizations: globalization,workforce diversity and ethics. And the last things that you have to take into account when you are learning about organizational behavior are: Mastery of basic objective knowledge, development of skills and abilities and the applied of both in real world settings.
To conclude we can said that managers must consider personal and environmental factors, and also to know how cultura can influence in decisions making to understand how people behave in organizations and to help them reach their máximum potential.

Find and explain 2 real life examples about the business implications of national and organizational culture.

Mc Donald´s case.
McDonald's Corporation is the world's largest chain of hamburger fast food restaurants , serving more than 58 million customers daily.(1)
This company when wants to enter in a new market, evaluate very well all the aspect that could affect their business, the main factor that they take in mind it´s the culture.so McDonald’s has continually adapt to the customer’s tastes, value systems, lifestyle, language and perception.
So iam going to analysis the entering of this company to India.
From indian people the most relevant aspect or influencing in the way that they behave is the religion, so Mc donalds to survive in this market had to be responsive to the indian sensitivities, Knowing that indian people don´t eat beef or pork they made some changes in theirs menus and came up with chicken, lamb and fish burgers to suite the Indian palate.
India is the only country where McDonalds serve vegetarian menu.
So analyzing this case we can said that each company has to take into account the national culture from settling in a new market.

Almacenes Exito.
Another example of the aplication of national culture is the  change of the exito imagen, the main reason for this company or supermarket to renovate, modify the corporate imagen was a respond of a neccesity, Because Exito wanted to enter to a new market, so they were under the obligation to put an imagen that would satisfy expectations of consumers, and  that brand needed to be more  adapatable to  some similarities that were implicited in some cultural aspects, in this order of ideas companies have to analyse the national culture of the markets where it operates.
Do you think there is a corporate culture in every organisation? It´s Possible to Modified?

Organizational culture is an idea in the field of Organizational Studies and management which describes the psychology, attitudes, experiences, beliefs and values (personal and cultural values) of an organization. It has been defined as "the specific collection of values and norms that are shared by people and groups in an organization and that control the way they interact with each other and with Stakeholders outside the organization.(2)
Understanding what´s organizational culture and its implications we can affirm that every organization has its own culture that is aligned with the mission and goals of the company.that why the employees has to accomplish or behave in a certain way to achieve goals. Also organization have their history, experiences,expertise, structure and so forth that could influence or determine an specific work enviroment, so each company build its own culture.
As we mencioned in the summary, organizational culture is influenced by the human behavior and the context of the organization, so i think it possible to modified the corporate culture spite that it is aligned to the objetives or the misión because in a certain way the employees are the essence of a sucessful company, that why is very important that the executive must motívate, stimulate and encourage them.
Today more than ever we can show that corporate culture changes, because we are in a globalized age which means that any company that wants to be competitive must make changes in its own structure, functioning,behavior, and they must adapted to enviromental changes so thats why they must implement strategies,its employees should behave in a certain way, to be aceptable in the market.
In conclusión, All the Organization has its own culture,that is influenced by the values, beliefs and so on, which could develop organizational norms, guidelines, that describe appropriate kinds of behavior by employees in particular situations and control the behavior of organizational members towards one another.

•Nelson, D.L. & Quick, J.C. 2010. Organizational Behavior: Science, The Real World and You. South-Western College Publication, 7th. Ed. Chapter 1.
•Mead, Richard. 2004. International Management: Cross-Cultural Dimensions London: Blackwell Publishing. Chapter 1.
•(1) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McDonald's
•(2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Organizational_culture